La Palin Parent Rating Scale (Palin PRS) è il risultato della ricerca di collaborazione che ha coinvolto medici, ricercatori e genitori di bambini che balbettano, utilizzando un approccio con vari metodi di ricerca.
Il Palin PRS è nato da un bisogno clinico per valutare la balbuzie dei bambini in termini di frequenza e gravità nella quotidianità, e altresì in relazione all’impatto che essa ha sul bambino, rappresentando così un utile complemento per gli strumenti di valutazione in corso.
Development of the Palin Parent Rating Scales
Aims and objectives:
To refine the parent rating scales that were developed using a Delphi study in 2003, including:
- Establishing the internal reliability of the measure
- Conducting an exploratory factor analysis to refine the content of the tool and to determine whether and how the various scales within the tool relate to each other and to the overall score.
- To work out the appropriate scoring method for the tool
- To determine the normative range within the scores, in order to develop a rating scale for the scoring e.g none – mild –moderate etc.
- To demonstrate whether the tool measures change over time
- To publish the tool for use by researchers and clinicians.
Relevance and value:
Stammering has an impact on both children and parents and so therapy seeks to reduce this impact as well as helping parents to feel more confident and knowledgeable about how to manage the stammering. The percentage of speech that is stammered (%SS) is one measure used for considering severity and therapy outcome, but it fails to take into account the emotional impact of stammering or it’s impact on daily communication. Currently, there is no tool to explore parents’ perspectives about the stammering, its impact or the effectiveness of therapy. Parents have been shown to be reliable in their reports of their children’s behaviours and they have greater knowledge and awareness of the child’s stammering outside the clinical context. There are few measures other than %SS that can be used to measure. This measure will be used both clinically and in research to:
- inform clinical decision making regarding whether therapy is required
- inform about the content or emphasis in therapy
- measure outcome for individual families
- measure outcome in group studies
The current rating scales were developed using a Delphi study to gain a consensus opinion about what parents felt should be included in a tool to measure the effectiveness of therapy.
The resulting series of scales (Millard, Edwards & Cook, 2009) were analysed using an
exploratory factor analysis to eliminate any scales that were not contributing to the overall
scores and to identify the main factors within the Palin PRS. Norms have been established in order to make judgements about the severity of the parents’ ratings within the main factors and to help evaluate change.
Lead and team involved:
Sharon Millard, PhD.
Steve Davis, PhD.